William Clancey

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Name: William J. Clancy, PhD

Elected ACMI Fellow: 1986


Degrees: PhD, Computer Science, Stanford, 1979

Current Position: Chief Scientist for Human-Centered Computing – Intelligent Systems Division, NASA/Ames Research Center, Collaborative and Assistant Systems Technical Area, Work Systems Design and Evaluation Group Lead, Senior Research Scientist, Florida Institute of Human-Machine Cognition (IHMC), Pensacola

Current email: my full name with two dots at NASA.Gov

Professional Affiliations:

Professional Activities: Association of Mars Explorers Board of Directors, CONTACT Conference Board of Directors, Member of the The Mars Society. Constructivist Foundations Advisiory Board, Chairman and Chief Technology Officer, Modernsoft, Inc

Honors and Awards: Fellow, Association for Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (1991); Fellow, Association for Psychological Science (2010)

Other Works:

Other Information:

Curriculum Vitae:

Selected Publications:

Towards On-Line Services Based on a Holistic Analysis of Human Activities
Author:	William J. Clancey	NASA-Ames Research Center, Computational Sciences Division, MS 269-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035, William.J.Clancey@NASA.gov
Published in:
· Proceeding
Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Towards the Learning Grid: Advances in Human Learning Services
IOS Press Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands ©2005 
table of contents ISBN:1-58603-534-7

Clancey, W.J. (2006)  Observation of work practices in natural settings. In A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. Feltovich & R. Hoffman (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook on Expertise and Expert Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 127-145. 

Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., and Seah, C. (2009) Workflow agents versus expert systems: Problem solving methods in work systems design. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 23: 357–371. Published by Cambridge University Press.

BRAHMS: Mobile Agents Project 
       See also annual Mars Society Conference reports for field experiments at MDRS 2003-2006
Clancey, W.J., Lowry, M., Nado, R., Sierhuis, M. 2011. Software Productivity of Field Experiments Using the Mobile Agents Open Architecture with Workflow Interoperability.  Proceedings of IEEE Fourth International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology (SMC-IT), Palo Alto, CA, August 2011, pp. 85-92.

Hall, T., Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Hood, D., Tucker, T., Buckley, C. (2009) Automating ISS file management using agent-based systems integration.  In H. Lane & K. Lulla (Eds.), Biennial Research and Technology Research Report. Johnson Space Center, TM-2009-214795,  pp. 184-185.   

Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Seah, C., Buckley, C., Reynolds, F., Hall, T., Scott, M. (2008) Multi-agent simulation to implementation: A practical engineering methodology for designing space flight operations. In A. Artikis, G. O'Hare, K. Stathis, & G. Vouros (Eds.), Engineering Societies in the Agents' World VIII. Athens, Greece, October 2007.  Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series, Volume 4870. Heidelberg Germany:  Springer, pp. 108-123.
Pedersen, L., Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Muscettola, N., Smith, D.E., Lees, D., Rajan, K., Ramakrishnan, S., Tompkins, P., Vera, A., Dayton, T. (2006) Field demonstration of surface human-robotic exploration activity. AAAI-06 Spring Symposium: Where no human-robot team has gone before, Stanford, March.
Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Alena, R., Berrios, D., Dowding, J., Graham, J.S., Tyree, K.S., Hirsh, R.L., Garry, W.B., Semple, A., Buckingham Shum, S.J., Shadbolt, N. and Rupert, S. (2007). Automating CapCom using Mobile Agents and robotic assistants. NASA Technical Publication 2007-214554. Washington, D.C.
Presented at American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1st Space Exploration Conference, 31 Jan-1 Feb, 2005, Orlando, FL. 
Available as AIAA Meeting Papers on Disc [CD-ROM]: Reston, VA, and as an Advanced Knowledge Technologies Project ePrint [1].  
Also in F. Crossman and R. Zubrin (eds.), On to Mars: Exploring and Settling a New World. Volume 2, Burlington, Canada: Apogee Books, 2005, CD-ROM.
NASA Report Site site: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20070035904_2007036018.pdf
Hirsh, R., Graham, J., Tyree, K., Sierhuis, M., and Clancey, W. J. (2006) Intelligence for human-robotic planetary surface robots. In A. M. Howard and E. W. Tunstel (Eds.) Intelligence for Space Robotics, Albuquerque: TSI Press, pp. 261-279.

Clancey, W.J, Sierhuis, M., Alena, R., Crawford, S., Dowding, J., Graham, J., Kaskiris, C., Tyree, K. S., and vanHoof, R. (2004) The Mobile Agents integrated field test: The Mars Desert Research Station April 2003, Proceedings of Florida AI Research Symposium (FLAIRS), Miami, May. CD-ROM.

Clancey, W.J, Sierhuis, M., Alena, R., Crawford, S., Dowding, J., Graham, J., Kaskiris, C., Tyree, K. S., and vanHoof, R. (2004) Mobile Agents: A distributed voice-commanded sensory and robotic system for surface EVA assistance, In R. B. Malla and A. Maji (eds), Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments: Earth and Space 2004, Houston: ASCE. pp. 85-92. 

Clancey, W.J, Sierhuis, M., Kaskiris, C., and vanHoof, R. (2003) Advantages of Brahms for specifying and implementing a multiagent human-robotic exploration system, Florida AI Research Symposium (FLAIRS).

Clancey, W.J, Sierhuis, M., Kaskiris, C., and van Hoof, R. (2002) Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and field tests, AAAI Fall Symposium on Human-Robot Interaction, North Falmouth, MA. November.

Clancey, W.J. (2003) Agent interaction with human systems in complex environments: Requirements for automating the function of capcom in Apollo 17. AAAI Spring Symposium: Human Interaction with Autonomous Systems in Complex Environments, Stanford, March.

BRAHMS: Simulating Human Activity

Clancey, W.J., Sachs, P., Sierhuis, M., & van Hoof, R. (1998) Brahms: simulating practice for work systems design. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, 49, 831-865.

Sierhuis, M., Diegelman, T. E., Seah, C.,  Shalin, V., Clancey, W. J., Selvin, A. M. (2007) Agent-based Simulation of Shuttle Mission Operations. Agent-Directed Simulation, 2007 Spring Simulation Multiconference (SpringSim 2007), pp. 53-60. Norfolk, VA, March.

Sierhuis, M., Clancey, W. J., Seah, C., Acquisti, A., Bushnell, D., Damer, B., Dorighi, N., Edwards, L., Faithorn, L., Flueckiger, L., Hoof, R. v., Lees, D., Nandkumar, A., Neukom, C., Scott, M., Sims, M., Wales, R., Wang, S.-Y., Wood, J., and Zhang, B. (2006) Agent-based Mission Modeling and Simulation. Agent-Directed Simulation, 2006 Spring Simulation Multiconference (SpringSim 2006), Huntsville, AL.

Clancey, W.J. Presentation: Applications for mission operations using multi-agent model-based instructional systems with virtual environments. Training for Tomorrow: Advanced Training Technologies (October 27, 2004) Houston, TX. (pdf)

Clancey, W.J. (2005) Towards on-line services based on a holistic analysis of human activities In P. Ritrovato, C. Allison, S.A. Cerri, T. Dimitrakos, M. Gaeta and S. Salerno (Eds.) Towards the learning GRID: Advances in human learning services, Volume 127, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, IOS Press.
Book Flyer from IOS Press. (ISBN: 1-58603-534-7)
Also: Proceedings of the 1st ELeGI conference: electronic Workshops in Computing (eWIC), The British Computer Society.
Originally presented at San Marino Summer School, Semantics and Pragmatics on the Web: Synergies between Philosophy and Computing, June 2001.

Clancey, W.J, Sierhuis, M., Damer, B., Brodsky, B. (2005) Cognitive modeling of social behaviors. In R. Sun (Ed.), Cognition and Multi-Agent Interaction: From Cognitive Modeling to Social Simulation, pp. 151-184. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Seah, C., Sierhuis, M., Clancey, W. J. (2005) Multi-agent modeling and simulation approach for design and analysis of MER mission operations. SIMCHI'05 Human-Computer Interface Advances for Modeling and Simulation, pp. 73-78. 

Sierhuis, M., Clancey, W.J, Damer, B., Brodsky, B., and van Hoof, R. (2005) Human activity behavior and gesture generation in virtual worlds for long-duration space missions.  In S. R. Ellis, M. Slater, and T. Alexander (Eds.),  Intelligent Motion and Interaction within Virtual Environments (IMIVE), NASA/CP—2005–213468, pp. 103-133.  Proceedings of IMIVE Conference, London, 2003.

Farkin, B., Damer, B., Gold, S., Rasmussen, D., Neilson, M., Newman, P., Norkus, R., Bertelshems, B., Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Van Hoof, R. (2004) BrahmsVE: From human-machine systems modeling to 3D virtual environments.  Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Simulation for European Space Programmes (SESP 2004), Noordwijk Holland, October 19-21. 

Sierhuis, M., Clancey, W.J., and van Hoof, R. (2007) Brahms: A multiagent modeling environment for simulating work practice in organizations. International Journal for Simulation and Process Modeling, 3(3):134-152. 

Clancey, W.J. (2002) Simulating activities: Relating motives, deliberation, and attentive coordination,Cognitive Systems Research 3(3) 471-499, September, special issue on situated and embodied cognition.

Sierhuis, M. and Clancey. W.J. (2002) Modeling and simulating work practice: A method for work systems design. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 17(5):32-41. Special issue on Human-Centered Computing at NASA, September/October.

Sierhuis, M., W.J. Clancey, Seah, C., and Trimble, J., and Sims, M.H. (2003) Multiagent modeling and simulation in human-robot mission operations work system design, Journal of Management Information Systems 19(4) 85-128. (M.E. Sharpe,Inc. URL: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/jmis)

Sierhuis, M., Acquisti, A., and Clancey, W. J. (2002) Multiagent plan execution and work practice: Modeling plans and work practices onboard the ISS, Proceedings of the 3rd International NASA Workshop on Planning and Scheduling for Space, Houston, TX, October.

Acquisti, A., Sierhuis, M., Clancey, W. J., and Bradshaw, J. M. (2002) Agent-based modeling of collaboration and work practices onboard the International Space Station. Proceedings of the 11th Computer-Generated Forces and Behavior Representation Conference. Orlando, FL, May 7-9. Also presented at The First Lake Arrowhead Conference on Computational Social Science and Social Complexity, Lake Arrowhead, LA (UCLA), May 9-12.

Sierhuis, M., Clancey, W.J., Sims, M.H. (2002) Multiagent modeling and simulation in human-robot mission operations work system design. In  Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences. 

Sierhuis, M., Clancey, W. J., van Hoof, R.., and de Hoog, R. (2000). Modeling and simulating human activity. In M. Freed (editor), AAAI Fall Symposium on Simulating Human Agents. AAAI Press, North Falmouth, MA, pp. 100-110.

Clancey, W.J. and Sierhuis, M. (2000) Multiagent work practice simulation: Progress and challenges NATO Future Modeling and Simulation Conference, November, Breda, NL.

SITUATED COGNITION: Understanding Knowledge and Consciousness

Being Scientific on Mars  (2009)  Presentation at CONTACT Conference, NASA Ames Research Center. 

Becoming a Rover (2009) In S. Turkle (Ed.), Simulation and Its Discontents. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 107-127. 

Relating Modes of Thought (2011) In Thomas Bartscherer and Roderick Coover (Eds.),  Switching Codes: Thinking Through New Technology in the Humanities and the Arts. University of Chicago Press, pp. 161-183.

 Feltovich, P. J., Bradshaw, J. M., Clancey, W. J., Johnson, M., & Bunch, L.  Progress Appraisal as a Challenging Element in Human and Machine Joint Activity.  (2008) In A. Artikis, G. O'Hare, K. Stathis, & G. Vouros (Eds.), Engineering Societies in the Agents' World VIII. Athens, Greece, October 2007.  Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series, Volume 4870. Heidelberg Germany:  Springer, pp. 124-141. 

Scientific antecedents of situated cognition (2008) In Philip Robbins and Murat Aydede (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 11-34.

Feltovich, P. J., Bradshaw, J. M., Clancey, W. J., & Johnson, M. Toward an ontology of regulation: Socially-based support for coordination in human and machine joint activity.  In G. O'Hare et al. (Eds.), Engineering Societies in the Agents World 2006. Berlin: Springer-Verlag (LNAI 4457), pp. 175–192, 2007.

How anchors allow reusing categories in neural composition of sentences (2006) Commentary on F. van der Velde & M. de Kamp: Neural blackboard architectures of combinatorial structures in cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1) 73-74, March.

Folk theory of the social mind: Policies, principles, and foundational metaphors. (2005) In Bruno G. Bara, Lawrence Barsalou, & Monica Bucciarelli (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 465-470, July 21-23, Stressa, Italy. Available at: http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/CSJarchive/Proceedings/2005/docs/p465.pdf

The Newell Test should commit to diagnosing dysfunctions (2003) Commentary on Anderson and Lebiere: The Newell Test for a theory of cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26(5) 604-5.

Is abstraction a kind of idea or how conceptualization works? (2001) Cognitive Science Quarterly, 1 (3-4) 389-421, Abstraction in Context, special issue, Spring/Summer.

Modeling the perceptual component of conceptual learning--a coordination perspective (2005) In P. Gärdenfors and P. Johansson (Eds.), Cognition, Education and Communication Technology, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 109-146.

A transactional perspective on the practice-based science of teaching and learning. To appear in T. Koschmann (Ed.), Theorizing Learning Practice (written 2005, revised 2007).
A transactional perspective on the workshop: Looking again and wondering. Response to commentaries, 2009.

Marooned on Mars: Mind-spinning books for software engineers (2000) Automated Software Engineering, Vol 7.

Conceptual coordination bridges information processing and neurophysiology (2000) Behavioral and Brain Sciences, special issue "Sleep and Dreaming," 26(3) 919-922, December.

Looking for higher-order consciousness, CONTACT 2000: SETI and AI Symposium.


Main title:        Artificial intelligence and learning environments / edited
                      by W.J. Clancey and E. Soloway.
Edition:           1st MIT Press ed.
Published/Created: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 1990.
ISBN:              0262530902

Main title:        Contemplating minds : a forum for artificial intelligence /
                      edited by William J. Clancey, Stephen W. Smoliar, and Mark
                      J. Stefik.
Published/Created: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, c1994.
ISBN:              0262531194 (pbk.)

Main title:        Readings in medical artificial intelligence : the first
                      decade / edited by William J. Clancey, Edward H.
Published/Created: Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, c1984.
Related names:     Clancey, William J.
                   Shortliffe, Edward Hance.

Personal name:     Clancey, William J.
Main title:        Conceptual coordination : how the mind orders experience in
                      time / William J. Clancey.
Published/Created: Mahwah, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
ISBN:              0805831436 (alk. paper)

Personal name:     Clancey, William J.
Main title:        Knowledge-based tutoring : the GUIDON program / William J.
Published/Created: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, c1987.
ISBN:              026203123X

Personal name:     Clancey, William J.
Main title:        Situated cognition : on human knowledge and computer
                      representations / William J. Clancey.
Published/Created: Cambridge, U.K. ; New York, NY, USA : Cambridge University
                      Press, 1997.
ISBN:              0521444004 (hard)
                   0521448719 (pbk.)

Personal name:     Clancey, William J.
Main title:        Working on Mars : voyages of scientific discovery with the
                      Mars exploration rovers / William J. Clancey.
Published/Created: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, c2012.
ISBN:              9780262017756 (hardcover : alk. paper)

Additional Media:
Overview of missions of [2] Mars Rovers

Dr. Clancey's home page

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